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 داب الطعام وآداب الشرب Etiquette and dining etiquette Drink رياض الصالحين مترجما للإنجليزية كتاب آداب الطعام ( 2 ) تكملة

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عدد المساهمات : 18466
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/12/2010
العمر : 66
الدولـة : jordan

مُساهمةموضوع: داب الطعام وآداب الشرب Etiquette and dining etiquette Drink رياض الصالحين مترجما للإنجليزية كتاب آداب الطعام ( 2 ) تكملة    الثلاثاء أغسطس 02, 2016 1:05 am





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752 - وعنه رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : [ إن الشيطان يحضر أحدكم عند كل شيء من شأنه حتى يحضره عند طعامه فإذا سقطت لقمة أحدكم فليأخذها فليمط ما كان بها من أذى ثم ليأكلها ولا يدعها للشيطان فإذا فرغ فليلعق أصابعه فإنه لا يدري في أي طعامه البركة ] رواه مسلم
752. Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Satan appears at every thing done by you; he appears even at one's dinner. When a morsel of any of you falls, he should pick it up and remove any dirt on it, and then eat it. He should not leave it for Satan, nor should he wipe his hand with the towel until he has licked his fingers, for he does not know in what portion of the food the blessing lies.)
[Muslim].
Commentary: A Muslim should be perpetually on his guard against satanic insinuations, even at mealtime. He is required to recite the Name of Allah in the very beginning so that he may be immune from satanic participation and mischief. If a man avoids picking up the fallen morsel, he will be providing Satan and his minions a chance to share food with him. So we seek the Refuge of Allah from the condemned Satan and his associates.

753 - وعن أنس رضي الله عنه قال : كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إذا أكل طعاما لعق أصابعه الثلاث وقال : [ إذا سقطت لقمة أحدكم فليمط عنها الأذى وليأكلها ولا يدعها للشيطان ] وأمرنا أن نسلت القصعة وقال : [ إنكم لا تدرون في أي طعامكم البركة ] رواه مسلم
753. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Whenever Messenger of Allah (PBUH) ate food, he would lick his three fingers and say, "If anyone of you drops a morsel of food, he should remove any dirt that may have stuck on it and then eat it, and should not leave it for Satan.) He (PBUH) also commanded us that we should glean the pot, saying, "You do not know in which part of your food the blessings lies.)
[Muslim].

754 - وعن سعيد بن الحارث أنه سأل جابرا رضي الله عنه عن الوضوء مما مست النار . فقال : لا قد كنا زمن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم لا نجد مثل ذلك الطعام إلا قليلا فإذا نحن وجدناه لم يكن لنا مناديل إلا أكفنا وسواعدنا وأقدامنا ثم نصلي ولا نتوضأ . رواه البخاري
754. Sa`id bin Al-Harith reported: I asked Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) whether it was obligatory to make Wudu' for Salat (prayer) after eating cooked food. He said: "No, because in the lifetime of Messenger of Allah (PBUH), such food was rarely available. We had no handkerchiefs, so when we ate such food we would wipe our fingers against our palms, forearms or (the sole of our) feet, and would offer Salat without fresh Wudu' (for prayer).)
[Al-Bukhari].
Commentary: There are three points in this Hadith. First, the life of the Companions was simple, divested of all kinds of luxuries and comforts. They lived on whatever was available to them. Second, a man's ablution is not nullified by eating a cooked food. In the early days of Islam, this command was put into practice but later it was cancelled. Third, if a handkerchief, or a towel or water is not available, a man can (after taking a meal) clean his mouth and hands with his palms and wrists so that his clothes will not be smeared during Salat (prayer).

110 - باب تكثير الأيدي على الطعام
Chapter 110
Merit of Sharing Food

755 - عن أبي هريرة رضي الله تعالى عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ طعام الاثنين كافي الثلاثة وطعام الثلاثة كافي الأربعة ] متفق عليه
755. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "The food of two persons suffices for three persons, and the food of three persons suffices for four persons.)
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

756 - وعن جابر رضي الله عنه قال سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول : [ طعام الواحد يكفي الاثنين وطعام الاثنين يكفي الأربعة وطعام الأربعة يكفي الثمانية ] رواه مسلم
756. Jabir bin `Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "The food of one person suffices for two, the food of two persons suffices for four persons, and the food of four persons suffices for eight persons.)
[Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith indicates that if a few persons share the same dinner-table, a small quantity of food will be enough for many persons. Moreover, this increases mutual love and fellow-feeling. A detailed light has already been shed on this topic in Chapter No. 62. See Hadith No. 565.

111 - باب آداب الشرب واستحباب التنفس ثلاثا خارج الإناء وكراهة التنفس في الإناء واستحباب إدارة الإناء على الأيمن فالأيمن بعد المبتدئ
Chapter 111
Etiquette of Drinking Water

757 - عن أنس رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كان يتنفس في الشراب ثلاثا . متفق عليه
يعني : يتنفس خارج الإناء
757. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to breathe three times in the course of a drink (he used to drink in three gulps).
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: Water should be drunk in three breaths, that is one should breathe three times outside the drinking vessel one is drinking from. This habit has a salutary impact on one's character and helps one avoid doing things in haste.

758 - وعن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ لا تشربوا واحدا كشرب البعير ولكن اشربوا مثنى وثلاث وسموا إذا أنتم شربتم واحمدوا إذا أنتم رفعتم ] رواه الترمذي وقال حديث حسن
758. Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Do not drink in one gulp like a camel, but in two or three (gulps). Mention the Name of Allah (i.e., say Bismillah) when you start drinking and praise Him (i.e., say Al-hamdu lillah) after you have finished (drinking).)
[At-Tirmidhi].
Commentary: This Hadith, too, prohibits us from drinking water in a single breath. It is preferable to say Bismillah every time we drink, and Al-hamdu lillah every time we stop drinking.

759 - وعن أبي قتادة رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم نهى أن يتنفس في الإناء . متفق عليه
يعني : يتنفس في نفس الإناء
759. Abu Qatadah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) forbade breathing into the vessel while drinking.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) prohibited us from breathing in the drinking vessel because the bad smell or spittle may flow into the drink. This is both loathsome as well as injurious to one's health.

760 - وعن أنس رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أتي بلبن قد شيب بماء
وعن يمينه أعرابي وعن يساره أبو بكر رضي الله عنه فشرب ثم أعطى الأعرابي وقال : [ الأيمن فالأيمن ] متفق عليه
قوله [ شيب ] أي خلط
760. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Milk mixed with water was brought to Messenger of Allah (PBUH). On his right side was sitting a bedouin and on his left was sitting Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him). He (PBUH) drank from it and handed the rest to the bedouin saying, "One who is on the right has preference, then again the one who is on the right.)
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

761 - وعن سهل بن سعد رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أتي بشراب
فشرب منه وعن يمينه غلام وعن يساره أشياخ فقال للغلام : [ أتأذن لي أن أعطي هؤلاء ؟ ] فقال الغلام : لا والله لا أوثر بنصيبي منك أحدا فتله رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في يده . متفق عليه
قوله [ تله ] : أي وضعه
وهذا الغلام هو ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما
761. Sahl bin Sa`d (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: A drink was brought to Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and he drank (some) from it. On his right was a boy and on his left were some elderly people. He (PBUH) said to the boy, "Would you permit me to give rest of this drink to these on my left?) The boy said: "O Messenger of Allah, I would certainly not give preference to anyone in anything that might come to me from you.) So he (PBUH) handed over the rest of the drink to him.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith has already been mentioned earlier. Sheikh Al-Albani says: Some wrongly think that (in order to distribute something) in accordance with the Sunnah, a beginning should be made from an elderly person of the audience. Similarly, the view of Imam An-Nawawi is also not sound that the distribution should begin from his own person and then give it out to the gathering in the right order. Whereas the fact is, as mentioned in the Hadith, Messenger of Allah (PBUH) had demanded the drink for himself and, therefore, drunk it first of all. And if the situation is otherwise, the beginning should be made from the right side according to the Sunnah. Neither should the distributor give priority to himself nor to any elderly person from amongst the gathering. Rather, he should begin from the right side and then keep distributing in the serial order. Sheikh Al-Albani, therefore, says that Imam An-Nawawi is wrong to think that the distributor should begin after himself from the right side.

112 - باب كراهة الشرب من فم القربة ونحوها وبيان أنه كراهة تنزيه لا تحريم
Chapter 112
Undesirability of Drinking directly from the mouth of a Water-Skin

762 - عن أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه قال : نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم عن اختناث الأسقية . يعني : أن تكسر أفواهها ويشرب منها . متفق عليه
762. Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) forbade turning the water-skin upside down and drinking directly from its mouth.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) has forbidden us to drink water from the mouth of a water-skin or something similar to it because some harmful insect in the water-skin may flow into the stomach. So, instead of drinking direct from the mouth of the water-skin, it is better to pour it into a drinking vessel in order to shun any possible harm.

763 - وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال : نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أن يشرب من في السقاء أو القربة . متفق عليه
763. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) prohibited drinking directly out of the mouth of a water-skin.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith and the preceding one are complementary to each other.

764 - وعن أم ثابت كبشة بنت ثابت أخت حسان بن ثابت رضي الله عنه وعنها قالت : دخل علي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فشرب من في قربة معلقة قائما فقمت إلى فيها فقطعته . رواه الترمذي وقال حديث حسن صحيح
وإنما قطعتها لتحفظ موضع فم رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم وتتبرك به وتصونه عن الابتذال . وهذا الحديث محمول على بيان الجواز والحديثان السابقان لبيان الأفضل والأكمل والله أعلم
764. Umm Thabit Kabshah (May Allah be pleased with her), daughter of Thabit (May Allah be pleased with him) and the sister of Hassan bin Thabit, the Prophet's poet) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) visited me and drank some water from a hanging water-skin while he was in a standing posture. So, I stood up and cut off the mouth (of that water-skin). An-Nawawi said that the reason why she did this was to keep to receive benediction that part of the water-skin which the lips of Messenger of Allah (PBUH) touched.
[At-Tirmidhi].
Commentary: The first two Ahadith forbid us from drinking water out of the mouth of a water-skin, whereas, once Messenger of Allah (PBUH) himself had done so. This shows that not to drink water by this way is also approved. However, if needed, it is allowable. For this reason Imam An-Nawawi clarified that to drink water out of the mouth of the water-skin is conditionally permissible and not forbidden. But to eschew it is desirable. Likewise, to receive benediction from the Prophet's left-overs is permissible as long as this does not take the form of worship and glorification.

113 - باب كراهة النفخ في الشراب
Chapter 113
Undesirability of blowing into the Vessel while Drinking

765 - عن أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم نهى عن النفخ في الشراب . فقال رجل : القذاة أراها في الإناء ؟ فقال : [ أهرقها ] قال : فإني لا أروى من نفس واحد ؟ قال : [ فأبن القدح إذا عن فيك ] رواه الترمذي وقال حديث حسن صحيح
765. Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) prohibited us blowing in the drinking water. A man said: "O Messenger of Allah! Sometimes I see some litter floating about on the surface. What should I do then?) He (PBUH) replied, "Pour them out.) Then the man said: "My thirst is not quenched with one draught.) Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Then put away the cup from your mouth (in between three gulps), and take breath.)
[At-Tirmidhi].
Commentary: If one sees straw or something like that in the water-vessel, he should not blow in the water. Messenger of Allah (PBUH) has forbidden it. Instead, some of the water or all the water should be poured out. Also, if his thirst is not quenched in a single breath, one should remove the vessel from his mouth. After taking breath, he should again drink water. To drink water in three breaths is preferable. However, in case of hot tea or milk, sipping is permissible, no matter if sips are in plenty.

766 - وعن ابن عباس رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم نهى أن يتنفس في الإناء أو ينفخ فيه . رواه الترمذي وقال حديث حسن صحيح
766. Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) prohibited us from breathing into the drinking vessel or blowing onto.
[At-Tirmidhi].

114 - باب بيان جواز الشرب قائما وبيان أن الأكمل والأفضل الشرب قاعدا
Chapter 114
Permission to Drink while in a standing Posture

فيه حديث كبشة السابق ( انظر الحديث رقم 761 )

767 - وعن ابن عباس رضي الله عنه قال : سقيت النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من زمزم فشرب وهو قائم . متفق عليه

767. Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: I served Messenger of Allah (PBUH) Zamzam water to drink and he drank it while he was standing.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

768 - وعن النزال بن سبرة رضي الله عنه قال : أتى علي رضي الله عنه باب الحبة فشرب قائما وقال : إني رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فعل كما رأيتموني فعلت . رواه البخاري

768. An-Nazzal bin Sabrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: `Ali bin Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) arrived at Bab Ar-Rahbah (in Kufah) and drank water in a standing posture. Then he said: "I saw Messenger of Allah (PBUH) doing what you have seen me doing.)
[Al-Bukhari].

769 - وعن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال : كنا نأكل على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ونحن نمشي ونشرب ونحن قيام . رواه الترمذي وقال حديث حسن صحيح

769. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: During the lifetime of Messenger of Allah (PBUH) we would eat while walking and would drink while standing.
[At-Tirmidhi].
Commentary: The Companions would not habitually eat something while being on the move and drink water in a standing position. In fact, the Hadith simply tells us that these were some moments in their life when they did so. The Ahadith that follow show that drinking in a standing posture is deprecated.

770 - وعن عمرو بن شعيب عن أبيه عن جده رضي الله عنه قال : رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يشرب قائما وقاعدا . رواه الترمذي وقال حديث حسن صحيح

770. `Amr bin Shu`aib on the authority of his father and grandfather reported: that they saw Messenger of Allah (PBUH) drink standing, and sitting.
[At-Tirmidhi].
The last three Ahadith point out the permissibility of eating and drinking while walking or standing or sitting, but drinking in the sitting position remains the best.

771 - وعن أنس رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أنه نهى أن يشرب الرجل قائما
قال قتادة : فقلنا لأنس : فالأكل ؟ قال : ذلك - أشر وأخبث - رواه مسلم

771. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) forbade us from drinking while standing. Qatadah reported: "We asked him: `What about eating?)' He said: "That is even worse, (or may be he said) more detestable.)
Another narration is: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) reprimanded us for drinking while standing.
[Muslim].

772 - وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم [ لا يشربن أحد منكم قائما فمن نسي فليستقئ ] رواه مسلم

772. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "None of you should drink standing; and if any one forgets, he must vomit.)
[Muslim].
Commentary: In the preceding Ahadith, we are told that one can drink water even in a standing position, it is better to eat or drink while seated in order to be on the safe side. Otherwise, the truth of the matter is that one should be cautious enough to eat or drink seated. Doubtless, it is an approved practice. Nowadays, people have made it a habit to eat food at feasts in a standing posture. They argue it is convenient because the whole of the gathering is dealt out at the same time. Yet, they fail to keep in their view the overwhelming disadvantages of this convenience. First, it involves the emulation of western example without any benefit. Second, the Prophet (PBUH) has forbidden it. Third, the indiscipline it spawns hardly befits the social behaviour of a dignified and civilized nation. Fourth, a long wait, tedious and boring normally features feasts and wedding parties. Fifth, in order to make it agreeable and to do away with the boredom of participants, either film songs or musical notes are played on record-players, or jesters and buffoons are brought in to amuse and entertain them. This is all satanic work, forbidden and unlawful, having no place in Islam

115 - باب استحباب كون ساقي القوم آخرهم شربا

Chapter 115
Excellence of Cupbearer drinking Last

773 - عن أبي قتادة رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : [ ساقي القوم آخرهم ] ( يعني شربا ) رواه الترمذي وقال حديث حسن صحيح

773. Abu Qatadah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "He who serves others with drinking water should be the last to drink himself.)
[At-Tirmidhi].
Commentary: Referring to this Hadith, Imam An-Nawawi stresses the manner of serving food or drink and says that the distributor should have his share in the end.

116 - باب جواز الشرب من جميع الأواني الطاهرة غير الذهب والفضة وجواز الكرع وهو الشرب بالفم من النهر وغيره بغير إناء ولا يد وتحريم استعمال إناء الذهب والفضة في الشرب والأكل والطهارة وسائر وجوه الاستعمال

Chapter 116
Permissibility of drinking water from clean Vessels of all types except Gold and Silver ones

774 - عن أنس رضي الله عنه قال : حضرت الصلاة فقام من كان قريب الدار إلى أهله وبقي قوم فأتي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بمخضب من حجارة فصغر المخضب أن يبسط فيه كفه فتوضأ القوم كلهم . قالوا : كم كنتم ؟ قال : ثمانين وزيادة . متفق عليه . هذه رواية البخاري
وفي رواية له ولمسلم : أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم دعا بإناء من ماء فأتي بقدح رحراح فيه شيء من ماء فوضع أصابعه فيه . قال أنس : فجعلت أنظر إلى الماء ينبع من بين أصابعه فحزرت من توضأ ما بين السبعين إلى الثمانين
774. Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Once the time for As-Salat (the prayer) approached. Those whose houses were near, went to their houses to perform Wudu' while some of the people remained with Messenger of Allah (PBUH). A stone (containing some water) bowl was brought for him. It was too small for him to spread his hand over it. He performed his Wudu' and it (the water) sufficed for all the others also. Anas was asked: "How many of you were present there?) He said: "Eighty or more.) [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]. Another narration in Muslim is: The Prophet (PBUH) called for a vessel containing water. A wide shallow vessel with a little water in it was brought for him. He put his fingers in it. Anas says: "I kept looking at the water pouring from between his fingers. I estimated that the number of people who made their Wudu' with it was from seventy to eighty.) Commentary: This Hadith mentions a miracle of Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and also provides for the use of a stoneware.

775 - وعن عبد الله بن زيد رضي الله عنه قال : أتانا النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فأخرجنا له ماء في تور من صفر فتوضأ . رواه البخاري
[ الصفر ] بضم الصاد ويجوز كسرها وهو : النحاس
و [ التور ] : كالقدح وهو بالتاء المثناة من فوق
775. `Abdullah bin Zaid (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) visited us and we brought water for him in a brass vessel for his ablution and he performed ablution.
[Al-Bukhari].
Commentary: This Hadith tells us that brassware can be used for performing ablution as well as for other purposes.

776 - وعن جابر رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم دخل على رجل من الأنصار ومعه صاحب له فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ إن كان عندك ماء بات هذه الليلة في شنة وإلا كرعنا ] رواه البخاري
[ الشن ] : القربة
776. Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) visited the house of a man of the Ansar with one of his Companions and said to him, "If you have some water in the water-skin left over from last night, give it to us for drinking; otherwise, we shall drink from some stream directly.)
[Al-Bukhari].
Commentary: With reference to this Hadith, Imam An-Nawawi says that apart from drinking water from a vessel, one can also drink at a cistern or stream.

777 - وعن حذيفة رضي الله عنه قال : إن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم نهانا عن الحرير والديباج والشرب في آنية الذهب والفضة وقال : [ هن لهم في الدنيا وهي لكم في الآخرة ] متفق عليه
777. Hudhaifah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) prohibited us from wearing brocade or silk and drinking out of gold or silver vessels and said, "These are meant for them (disbelievers) in this world and for you in the Hereafter.)
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: Silk clothes are forbidden to men but allowed to women. Yet, both sexes are forbidden to use utensils made of silver and gold. However, the orthodox `Ulama' say that women can use ornaments of silver and gold and that, it is advisable not to use them because many vices stem from their use and display.

778 - وعن أم سلمة رضي الله عنها أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : [ الذي يشرب في آنية الفضة إنما يجرجر في بطنه نار جهنم ] متفق عليه
وفي رواية لمسلم : [ إن الذي يأكل أو يشرب في آنية الفضة والذهب ]
وفي رواية له : [ من شرب في إناء من ذهب أو فضة فإنما يجرجر في بطنه نارا من جهنم ]
778. Umm Salamah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "He who drinks from the vessel of silver kindles the Fire (of Hell) in his belly.)
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
A narration in Muslim is: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Surely, he who eats or drinks in gold and silver vessels fills his belly with Hell-fire.)
Commentary: To use utensils of silver and gold involves extravagance. Moreover, it is a sign of pride and ostentatious lifestyle. Allah detests them both. On this count they are major sins, involving the danger of severe chastisement in Hell-fire.
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