163 - باب ثناء الناس على الميت
Praising the Deceased
950 - عن أنس رضي الله عنه قال : مروا بجنازة فأثنوا عليها خيرا فقال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ وجبت ] ثم مروا بأخرى فأثنوا عليها شرا فقال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ وجبت ] فقال عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه : ما وجبت ؟ قال : [ هذا أثنيتم عليه خيرا فوجبت له الجنة وهذا أثنيتم عليه شرا فوجبت له النار أنتم شهداء الله في الأرض ] متفق عليه
950. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Some Companions happened to pass by a funeral procession (bier) and they praised him (the deceased). The Prophet (PBUH) said, "He will certainly enter it.'' Then they passed by another funeral procession and they spoke ill of the deceased. The Prophet (PBUH) said, "He will certainly enter it.'' `Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) said: "(O Messenger of Allah,) what do you mean by `He will certainly enter it?'' He (PBUH) replied, "You praised the first person, so he will enter Jannah; and you spoke ill of the second person, so he will enter Hell. You are Allah's witnesses on earth.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: The remarks of true believers reflect their righteousness and integrity of character. If they bear witness to the purity of heart of a man, he is sure to go to Jannah. And if they comment on the evil-mindedness of somebody, he is likely to be consigned to Hell-fire. Indeed, a believer never utters anything out of malice or self-conceit. There are some Ahadith which forbid us to speak ill of dead people. This rule applies to the true believers only. The Shari`ah argument is against it. However, we are allowed to talk about the misdeeds of the infidels and people who commit sins openly, disregarding the Shari`ah so that others may abstain from imitating a bad example.
951 - وعن أبي الأسود قال : قدمت المدينة فجلست إلى عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه فمرت بهم جنازة فأثني على صاحبها خيرا فقال عمر رضي الله عنه : وجبت . ثم مر بأخرى فأثني على صاحبها خيرا فقال عمر : وجبت . ثم مر بالثالثة فأثني على صاحبها شرا فقال : وجبت . قال أبو الأسود : فقلت : وما وجبت يا أمير المؤمنين ؟ قال قلت كما قال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ أيما مسلم شهد له أربعة بخير أدخله الله الجنة ] فقلنا : وثلاثة ؟ قال : [ وثلاثة ] فقلنا : واثنان ؟ قال : [ واثنان ] ثم لم نسأله عن الواحد . رواه البخاري
951. Abul-Aswad (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I came to Al-Madinah, and while I was sitting beside `Umar bin Al-Khattab, a funeral procession passed by. The people praised the deceased, and `Umar bin Al-Khattab said: "He will certainly enter it.'' Then another funeral procession passed by and the people praised the deceased. `Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) said: "He will certainly enter it.'' A third funeral procession passed by and the people spoke ill of the deceased. He said: "He will certainly enter it.'' I (Abul-Aswad) asked: "O Amir Al-Mu'minin (i.e., Leader of the Believers)! What do you mean by `He will certainly enter it'?'' He replied: "I said the same as was said by the Prophet (PBUH). He (PBUH) said, `If four persons testify the righteousness of a Muslim, Allah will grant him Jannah.' We asked: `If three persons testify his righteousness?' He (PBUH) replied, `Even three'. Then we asked: `If two?' He (PBUH) replied, `Even two.' We did not ask him (regarding the testimony) of one.''
164 - باب فضل من مات له أولاد صغار
Superiority of one who is Bereaved of his Infants