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»  إننا نجد أن بعضا من أسماء الله سبحانه وتعالى له مقابل، ومن أسماء الله الحسنى ما لا تجد له مقابلا. فإذا قيل “المحيي” تجد “المميت” لكن الصفة إن لم يوجد لها مقابل نسميها صفة ذات، فهو “حي” ولا نأتي بالمقابل
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» تابع / إننا نجد أن بعضا من أسماء الله سبحانه وتعالى له مقابل، ومن أسماء الله الحسنى ما لا تجد له مقابلا. فإذا قيل “المحيي” تجد “المميت” لكن الصفة إن لم يوجد لها مقابل نسميها صفة ذات، فهو “حي” ولا نأتي بالمقابل
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»  فالاسم هو العَلَم الذي وُضِع للدلالة على هذا اللفظ. / {كهيعص(1)}
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 سجود الشكر Prostration of Gratitude - رياض الصالحين مترجما للإنجليزية كتاب الفضائل ..الجزء الثاني ( 4 )

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عدد المساهمات : 18466
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/12/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: سجود الشكر Prostration of Gratitude - رياض الصالحين مترجما للإنجليزية كتاب الفضائل ..الجزء الثاني ( 4 )    الإثنين أغسطس 01, 2016 9:08 pm





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211 - باب استحباب سجود الشكر عند حصول نعمة ظاهرة أو اندفاع بلية ظاهرة
Chapter 211
The Desirability of Prostrating out of Gratitude

1159 - عن سعد بن أبي وقاص رضي الله عنه قال خرجنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من مكة نريد المدينة فلما كنا قريبا من عزوراء نزل ثم رفع يديه فدعا الله ساعة ثم خر ساجدا فمكث طويلا ثم قام فرفع يديه ساعة ثم خر ساجدا فعله ثلاثا قال : [ إني سألت ربي وشفعت لأمتي فأعطاني ثلث أمتي فخررت ساجدا لربي شكرا ثم رفعت رأسي فسألت ربي لأمتي فأعطاني ثلث أمتي فخررت ساجدا لربي شكرا ثم رفعت رأسي فسألت ربي لأمتي فأعطاني الثلث الآخر فخررت ساجدا لربي ] رواه أبو داود
1159. Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: We left Makkah with the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) for Al-Madinah, and when we were near `Azwara,' he (PBUH) alighted (from his riding-camel) raised his hands in supplication to Allah for a while and prostrated himself. He remained for a long time in prostration. Then he stood up and raised his hands for a while, after which he prostrated himself (again), and remained for a long time in prostration. Then he stood up and raised his hands for a while, after which he prostrated himself for the third time. Then he (PBUH) said, "I supplicated my Rubb and made intercession for my Ummah, and He granted me one-third of them. So I again prostrated myself in gratitude to my Rubb. Then I raised my head and supplicated my Rubb for my Ummah, and He granted me another third of them. Again I raised my head and supplicated my Rubb for my Ummah and He granted me the last third of them. So I fell into prostration out of gratitude before my Rubb.''
[Abu Dawud].
Commentary: The phrase "I supplicated my Rubb and made intercession for my Ummah'' means that the Prophet (PBUH) prayed to Allah to pardon his Ummah and to admit them to Jannah. The interpretation of this Hadith is stated to be that ultimately all the Muslims will be sent to Jannah. They will not abide in Hell for ever. Some of them will go to Jannah after suffering the punishment for their major sins, some through the intercession of the Prophet (PBUH), and some by the Special Grace of Allah. This interpretation is no doubt true. This is confirmed by other Ahadith and forms the belief of the followers of Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH). But the Hadith under discussion is not "Sahih''. However, Sujud-ush-Shukr (prostrations for thanksgiving), in support of which Imam An-Nawawi has reproduced this Hadith here, is also proved by other Ahadith. To prostrate in gratitude to Allah is correct and permissible . The incident of K`ab bin Malik is included in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, which shows that after he came to know that his repentance was accepted, he prostrated to give thanks to Allah. According to the Shafi`i school of thought, the basic elements of Sujud-ush-Shukr (or prostrations to express thanks to Allah) are: (a) the intention (in the heart), (b) the Takbir, (c) prostration and (d) Taslim; the Hanafi school of thought, however, maintain that it is an act of prostration between two Takbir. It is permissible to perform it outside Salat, but not during it because it will invalidate it, if one does so deliberately.

212 - باب فضل قيام الليل
Chapter 212
Excellence of Standing in Prayer at Night

قال الله تعالى ( الإسراء 79 ) : { ومن الليل فتهجد به نافلة لك عسى أن يبعثك ربك مقاما محمودا }
وقال تعالى ( السجدة 16 ) : { تتجافى جنوبهم عن المضاجع } الآية
وقال تعالى ( الذاريات 17 ) : { كانوا قليلا من الليل ما يهجعون }
Allah, the Exalted, says:
"And in some parts of the night (also) perform the Salat (prayer) with it (i.e., recite the Qur'an in the prayer) as an additional prayer (Tahajjud optional prayer - Nawafil) for you (O Muhammad (PBUH)). It may be that your Rubb will raise you to Maqam Mahmud (a station of praise and glory, i.e., the honour of intercession on the Day of Resurrection).'' (17:79)
"Their sides forsake their beds...'' (32:16)
"They used to sleep but little by night [invoking their Rubb (Allah) and praying, with fear and hope].'' (51:17)

1160 - وعن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت : كان النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يقوم من الليل حتى تتفطر قدماه فقلت له : لم تصنع هذا يا رسول الله وقد غفر لك ما تقدم من ذنبك وما تأخر ؟ قال : [ أفلا أكون عبدا شكورا ؟ ] متفق عليه
وعن المغيرة نحوه . متفق عليه
1160. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) kept standing (in prayer) so long that the skin of his feet would crack. I asked him: "Why do you do this, while you have been forgiven of your former and latter sins?'' He said, "Should I not be a grateful slave of Allah?''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith has already been mentioned. It is reproduced here to illustrate the practice of the Prophet (PBUH) in respect of Qiyam-ul-Lail. It tells us that:
1. The Nafl Salat should be performed with full concentration and peace of mind.
2. The more one is endowed with gifts from Allah, the greater gratitude and worship one should express for them to Allah.
3. The best time for showing one's humility before Allah and for worship is the later period of night.

1161 - وعن علي رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم طرقه وفاطمة ليلا فقال : [ ألا تصليان ؟ ] متفق عليه
[ طرقه ] : أتاه ليلا
1161. `Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) visited me and Fatimah (May Allah be pleased with her) one night and said, "Do you not observe prayer (at night)?''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith tells us that one should also awaken others at night for prayer so that they also avail the benefits of performing prayer at this particular time.

1162 - وعن سالم بن عبد الله بن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه عن أبيه أن رسول الله
صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : [ نعم الرجل عبد الله لو كان يصلي من الليل ] قال سالم : فكان عبد الله بعد ذلك لا ينام من الليل إلا قليلا . متفق عليه
1162. Salim bin `Abdullah bin `Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with them) reported, on the authority of his father, that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "What an excellent man `Abdullah is! If only he could perform optional prayers at night.'' Salim said that after this, (his father) `Abdullah slept very little at night.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith points out the excellence of `Abdullah bin `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) as well as the merits of Qiyam-ul-Lail. It also tells us that it is permissible to praise someone in his presence if one is sure that he will not become proud due to that praise. Another aspect of this Hadith is that it induces one to wish for others' welfare and happiness.

1163 - وعن عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنهما قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ يا عبد الله لا تكن مثل فلان كان يقوم الليل فترك قيام الليل ] متفق عليه
1163. `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said to me, "Do not be like so-and-so O `Abdullah! He used to pray during the night, then stopped the practice.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

1164 - وعن ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه قال ذكر عند النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم رجل نام ليلة حتى أصبح قال : [ ذاك رجل بال الشيطان في أذنيه أو قال أذنه ] متفق عليه
1164. `Abdullah bin Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Mention was made before the Prophet (PBUH) of a man who slept throughout the night till morning. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) remarked, "He is a man in whose ears Satan urinated.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].n
Commentary: This Hadith holds inducement for Qiyam-ul-Lail and highlights its merits. It also urges one to perpetuate his good actions, follow the practice of the righteous and avoid the way of those who are negligent or become negligent in the performance of virtuous deeds. Urination of Satan in a person's ear or ears can be literally true (although we cannot perceive it) because if a person does not seek the protection of Allah against Satan, then Satan joins him in food and other activities, as is evident from other Ahadith. Therefore, urination of Satan is also possible. Some people think it is a metaphor to the effect that he who does not get up at night for prayer and goes on enjoying his sleep, Satan `closes' his ears until he does not hear the remembrance of Allah. Some others consider it a metaphor for the contempt and insult of Satan. In either case, we learn from this Hadith that missing the Qiyam-ul-Lail is disliked because it provides Satan an opportunity to create mischief, and he succeeds in creating obstructions in the worship and obedience of Allah.

1165 - وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : [ يعقد الشيطان على قافية رأس أحدكم إذا هو نام ثلاث عقد يضرب على كل عقدة : عليك ليل طويل فارقد فإن استيقظ فذكر الله تعالى انحلت عقدة فإن توضأ انحلت عقدة فإن صلى انحلت عقده فأصبح نشيطا طيب النفس وإلا أصبح خبيث النفس كسلان ] متفق عليه
[ قافية الرأس ] : آخره
1165. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "When any one of you sleeps, Satan ties three knots at the back of his neck. He recites this incantation at every knot: `You have a long night, so sleep.' If he awakes and remembers Allah, one knot is loosened. If he performs Wudu', the (second) knot is loosened; and if he performs prayer, (all) knots are loosened. He begins his morning in a happy and refreshed mood; otherwise, he gets up in bad spirits and sluggish state.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: "Tying knots'' can be literal, the way magicians do it in their magical exercises. With this practice Satan tries to withhold people from the worship of Allah. Some people are of the opinion that it is a metaphor for sleepiness/dozing. In any case, Satan does his level best to withhold a person from the worship of Allah. Satan experiences frustration if someone gets up at night for prayer; he also experiences happiness if he manages to keep someone asleep until dawn.

1166 - وعن عبد الله بن سلام رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : [ أيها الناس أفشوا السلام وأطعموا الطعام وصلوا بالليل والناس نيام تدخلوا الجنة بسلام ] رواه الترمذي وقال حديث حسن صحيح
1166. `Abdullah bin Salam (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "O people, promote the greetings, feed (the poor and needy) and perform Salat when others are asleep so that you will enter Jannah safely.''
[At-Tirmidhi].
Commentary: This Hadith has glad tidings for those who enthusiastically do all the good works mentioned in this Hadith. "Enter Jannah in peace'' here means that they will enter Jannah without suffering any punishment in Hell.

1167 - وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ أفضل الصيام بعد رمضان شهر الله المحرم وأفضل الصلاة بعد الفريضة صلاة الليل ] رواه مسلم
1167. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "The best month for observing Saum (fasting) after Ramadan is Muharram, and the best Salat after the prescribed Salat is Salat at night.''
[Muslim].
Commentary: The month of Muharram is related to Allah which makes its eminence clear. It shows that in the optional Saum (fasting) the most meritorious are those which are observed in this month. After the obligatory Salat, the most meritorious is the optional Salat performed at night.

1168 - وعن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : [ صلاة الليل مثنى مثنى فإذا خفت الصبح فأوتر بواحدة ] متفق عليه
1168. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "Salat during the night should consist of pairs of but if you fear that morning is near, then pray one Rak`ah as Witr.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

1169 - وعنه رضي الله عنه قال : كان النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يصلي من الليل مثنى مثنى ويوتر بركعة . متفق عليه
1169. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) performed the night prayer in pairs (i.e., Rak`ah) and made it odd number by observing one Rak`ah (as Witr).
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: Both the foregoing Ahadith tell us that the Nafl Salat performed at night should be in the form of couplets followed by one Rak`ah of Witr. Thus, this Hadith not only brings out justification for one Rak`ah Witr but also proves its superiority. Even if one has to perform three Rak`ah Witr, he should first perform two and then perform one separately.

1170 - وعن أنس رضي الله عنه قال كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يفطر من الشهر حتى نظن أن لا يصوم منه ويصوم حتى نظن أن لا يفطر منه شيئا وكان لا تشاء أن تراه من الليل مصليا إلا رأيته ولا نائما إلا رأيته . رواه البخاري
1170. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to leave off observing Saum (fasting) during a month until we thought that he would not observe Saum at all during it; and (sometimes) he would observe Saum till we began to think that he would not omit any day of that month. If one wished to see him performing Salat during the night, he could do that; and if one wished to see him sleeping at night, he could do that.
[Al-Bukhari].
Commentary: What this Hadith tells us is that whether it was optional Saum (fasting) or optional Salat (Nawafil) of the night, that is to say Qiyam-ul-Lail, the Prophet (PBUH) did not have a permanent routine for it. Sometimes it so happened that almost the month passed but he did not observe fasting and then a few days before the end of the month he would start fasting. Sometimes, he would fast day after day continuously, and it would appear as if he would continue fasts for the whole month, but he would then suddenly terminate fasts. Similar was the case of Tahajjud. Sometimes, he would perform Tahajjud prayer in the first portion of the night, sometimes in the second, and sometimes in its later portion. Thus, he was found sleeping and performing Salat in every part of the night.

1171 - وعن عائشة رضي الله عنها أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كان يصلي إحدى عشرة ركعة ( تعني في الليل ) يسجد السجدة من ذلك قدر ما يقرأ أحدكم خمسين آية قبل أن يرفع رأسه ويركع ركعتين قبل صلاة الفجر ثم يضطجع على شقه الأيمن حتى يأتيه المنادي للصلاة . رواه البخاري
1171. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to perform eleven Rak`ah (of Tahajjud) prayers at night. He (PBUH) would prostrate so long as one of you might recite fifty Ayat (of the Qur'an). Thereafter, he would perform two Rak`ah before Fajr prayers and would lie down on his right side till the Mu'adhdhin would come and inform him about the time of (Fajr) prayer.
[Al-Bukhari].
Commentary: This Hadith tells us that it was a practice of the Prophet (PBUH) to sleep on his right side after performing two Sunnah of Fajr prayer. It also tells us that he used to make long prostrations in Tahajjud prayer, because one gets closer to Allah in a state of prostration. This Hadith also stresses on utmost concentration in Salat as it is highly pleasing to Allah and there is a greater possibility of acceptance of prayer which is made in a state of prostration.

1172 - وعنها رضي الله عنها قالت : ما كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يزيد في رمضان ولا في غيره على إحدى عشرة ركعة يصلي أربعا فلا تسأل عن حسنهن وطولهن ثم يصلي أربعا فلا تسأل عن حسنهن وطولهن ثم يصلي ثلاثا فقلت : يا رسول الله أتنام قبل أن توتر ؟ فقال : [ يا عائشة إن عيني تنامان ولا ينام قلبي ] متفق عليه
1172. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) did not observe more than eleven Rak`ah (of Tahajjud prayers), be in Ramadan or any other month. First of all he would perform four Rak`ah. Ask not about their excellence and their length. He (PBUH) would then perform four more Rak`ah; and do not ask about their excellence and their length. Then he would perform three Rak`ah (Witr prayer). (`Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) added) I submitted: "O Messenger of Allah! Do you sleep before performing the Witr prayer?'' He (PBUH) said, "O `Aishah! My eyes sleep but my heart does not sleep.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary:
1."My heart does not sleep'' signifies that "usually I am not so overwhelmed by sleep that I miss the Salat''. Some people give a different interpretation of this by saying that his Wudu' remained intact as his heart was awake. This is one of the attributes of the Prophet (PBUH). This Hadith stresses on performing Salat with full decorum and concentration because this is the way the Prophet (PBUH) did it. The real beauty of Salat lies in performing it in accordance with the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) and with full peace of mind.
2. If one is confident of getting up in the later part of the night, one can perform Witr after Tahajjud prayer; but if one is not sure of getting up at the time of Tahajjud then it is better to perform Witr after `Isha' prayer.

1173 - وعنها رضي الله عنها أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم كان ينام أول الليل ويقوم آخره فيصلي . متفق عليه
1173. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) would sleep during the early part of night and stand in Salat during the latter part.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith tells us about the ordinary routine of the Prophet (PBUH). Ordinarily, he would go to sleep in the first part of the night and perform Tahajjud prayer in the later portion, which is the best time for it. But, as already mentioned in the preceding Ahadith, he sometimes also performed it in the early as well as middle hours of the night.

1174 - وعن ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه قال : صليت مع النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم ليلة فلم
يزل قائما حتى هممت بأمر سوء قيل : ما هممت به ؟ قال : هممت أن أجلس وأدعه . متفق عليه
1174. Ibn Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: One night I joined the Prophet (PBUH) in his (optional) Salat. He (PBUH) prolonged the Qiyam (standing) so much that I made up my mind to commit an act of wrong. He was questioned: "What did you intend to do?'' He replied: "I intended to sit down and stop following him (in Salat).''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: We learn from this Hadith that:
1. Qiyam-ul-Lail (Tahajjud prayer) must be fairly long and every constituent of it should be performed with full peace of mind.
2. It is permissible to perform Nafl Salat in congregation.
3. In case an Imam inordinately lengthens a Salat, it is permissible for his followers to detach themselves from the congregation. But Ibn Mas`ud has regarded his intention to do so as bad, and for this reason its justification becomes doubtful. Since the Imam has been exhorted to take care of his followers in Salat, this apparently furnishes justification for the detachment.

1175 - وعن حذيفة رضي الله عنه قال صليت مع النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم ذات ليلة فافتتح البقرة فقلت : يركع عند المائة ثم مضى فقلت يصلي بها في ركعة فمضى فقلت : يركع بها ثم افتتح النساء فقرأها ثم افتتح آل عمران فقرأها : يقرأ مترسلا إذا مر بآية فيها تسبيح سبح وإذا مر بسؤال سأل وإذا مر بتعوذ تعوذ ثم ركع فجعل يقول : سبحان ربي العظيم . فكان ركوعه نحوا من قيامه ثم قال : سمع الله لمن حمده ربنا لك الحمد . ثم قام طويلا قريبا مما ركع ثم سجد فقال : سبحان ربي الأعلى فكان سجوده قريبا من قيامه . رواه مسلم
1175. Hudhaifah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I performed Salat with the Prophet (PBUH) one night, and he started reciting Surat Al-Baqarah. I thought that he would go in Ruku` (bowing posture in Salat) at the end of one hundred Ayat, but he continued (reciting); and I thought that he would perhaps recite (this Surah) in the whole Rak`ah (prayer), but he continued the recitation; I thought he would perhaps bow on completing (this Surah). He (PBUH) then started reciting Surat An-Nisa' which he followed with Surat Al-Imran. He recited leisurely. When he recited an Ayah which mentioned the tasbeeh, he would say Subhan Allah and when he recited the Ayah which tells how the Rubb is to be asked, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) would then ask from Him; and when he (PBUH) recited an Ayah asking one to seek Protection Allah, he would seek Protection of Allah. Then he bowed and said, "Subhana Rabbiyal-Azim (My Rubb the Great is free from imperfection)''; his bowing lasted about the same length of time as his standing, (and then on returning to the standing posture after Ruku`) he would say, "Sami' Allahu liman hamidah, Rabbana lakal-hamd (Allah listens to him who praises Him. Praise be to You, Our Rubb!),'' and he would then stand about the same length of time as he had spent in bowing. He would then prostrate himself and say, "Subhana Rabbiyal-A`la (My Rubb the Supreme is free from imperfection),'' and his prostration lasted nearly the same length of time as his standing (Qiyam).
[Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith has already been mentioned. In his commentary on Sahih Muslim, Imam An-Nawawi has interpreted the words (occuring in this Hadith) as "I thought he would perhaps recite in the whole Rak`ah.'' Here Rak`ah means complete Salat (two Rak`ah). This interpretation is necessary for the reason that in its absence, the meanings of the next sentence go wrong. Due to this reason, we have kept these meanings in view in our translation. In any case, it furnishes justification for the desirability of long Qiyam (standing in Salat), the desirability of congregation in Nafl Salat, and the maintenance of the correct sequence in the recitation of the Surah of the Qur'an in prayers, which is not accepted by many people.

1176 - وعن جابر رضي الله عنه قال : سئل رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أي الصلاة أفضل ؟ قال : [ طول القنوت ] رواه مسلم
المراد بالقنوت : القيام
1176. Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was asked: "Which Salat is the best?'' He replied, '' The best Salat is that in which Qiyam (the duration of standing) is longer.''
[Muslim].
Commentary: We learn from this Hadith that of all the articles of Salat (Ruku`, Sujud, etc.), it is best to lengthen the Qiyam because the greater the Qiyam is, the longer the recitation of the Qur'an will be. Since the recitation of the Qur'an is the best form of remembrance of Allah, the lengthening of the Qiyam is also most meritorious.

1177 - وعن عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال له : [ أحب الصلاة إلى الله صلاة داود وأحب الصيام إلى الله صيام داود : كان ينام نصف الليل ويقوم ثلثه وينام سدسه ويصوم يوما ويفطر يوما ] متفق عليه
1177. `Abdullah bin `Amr (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "The Salat which is dearest to Allah is that of (Prophet) Dawud; and As-Saum (the fasting) which is dearest to Allah is that of (Prophet) Dawud. He used to sleep half the night, get up to perform Salat for one-third of it, then sleep through the remaining one-sixth of it; and he used to observe Saum on alternative days.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: Since Islam has strictly forbidden self-affliction to the extent that it has forbidden hardship even in worship, compulsory awakening for Salat at midnight and observing Saum (fasting) for the whole month (except of the month of Ramadan) is disapproved. The model set by the Prophet (PBUH) is the ideal pattern of moderation in this respect. In this Hadith the fasting and the prayer of Prophet Dawud have been regarded most pleasing to Allah, because their conduct had a moderation which is enjoined by Islam.

1178 - وعن جابر رضي الله عنه قال سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول : [ إن في الليل لساعة لا يوافقها رجل مسلم يسأل الله خيرا من أمر الدنيا والآخرة إلا أعطاه إياه وذلك كل ليلة ] رواه مسلم
1178. Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) saying, "Every night there is a special time during which whatever a Muslim asks Allah of any good relating to this life or the Hereafter, it will be granted to him; and this moment comes every night.''
[Muslim].
Commentary: Like the special moment in Jumu`ah, the time when this special moment occurs every night is not determined. But it is generally in the late hours of the night because that is the best time for worship. As in the case of Lailat-ul-Qadr the wisdom of keeping it secret lies in the inducement to search it by means of worship and prayer, praise and remembrance of Allah.

1179 - وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : [ إذا قام أحدكم من الليل فليفتتح الصلاة بركعتين خفيفتين ] رواه مسلم
1179. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "When one of you gets up at night to perform (Tahajjud) prayer, let him start Salat with two short Rak`ah.''
[Muslim].

1180 - وعن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت : كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إذا قام من الليل صلاته بركعتين خفيفتين . رواه مسلم
1180. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: Whenever the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) stood for Salat at night, he would start his prayer with two brief Rak`ah.
[Muslim].
Commentary: These two Ahadith point out the desirability of performing two brief Rak`ah before one embarks on Tahajjud prayers, as this was the practice of the Prophet (PBUH). The wisdom behind this is to drive away laziness and pave the way for the nocturnal prayers in a proper manner. Allah knows better.

1181 - وعنها رضي الله عنها قالت : كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إذا فاتته الصلاة من الليل من وجع أو غيره صلى من النهار ثنتي [ اثنتي ] عشرة ركعة . رواه مسلم
1181. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: If the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) missed his night (Tahajjud) Salat because of indisposition or the like, he would perform twelve Rak`ah during the day.
[Muslim].

1182 - وعن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ من نام عن حزبه أو عن شيء منه فقرأه فيما بين صلاة الفجر وصلاة الظهر كتب له كأنما قرأه من الليل ] رواه مسلم
1182. `Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "If anyone falls asleep and therefore fails to observe his Hizb (share) or part of it, if he observes it between the Fajr and the Zuhr prayers, it will be recorded for him as though he had observed it during the night.''
[Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith has already been mentioned. The word "Hizb'' literally means "share'' and "turn''. Here it means that (daily round of recitation) which a person determines for himself, such as prayer or recitation of the Qur'an. For instance, if a person decides that he will perform eight Rak`ah in Tahajjud, recite one Juz` (part) of the Qur'an everyday, remember Allah in such and such form for so many times etc., etc. And then he makes every possible effort to put into practice his decision, but if casually he is unable to fulfill his routine, he should do it afterwards. This action of his will be credited to his account by Allah as if he completed it at the appointed time. This Hadith furnishes justification for the performance of optional righteous acts even after their due time.

1183 - وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ رحم الله رجلا قام من الليل فصلى وأيقظ امرأته فإن أبت نضح في وجهها الماء رحم الله امرأة قامت من الليل فصلت وأيقظت زوجها فإن أبي نضحت في وجهه الماء ] رواه أبو داود بإسناد صحيح
1183. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "May Allah show mercy to a man who gets up during the night and performs Salat, awakens his wife to pray and if she refuses, he sprinkles water on her face (to make her get up). May Allah show mercy to a woman who gets up during the night and performs Salat, awakens her husband for the same purpose; and if he refuses, she sprinkles water on his face.''
[Abu Dawud].
Commentary: This Hadith tells us about the conduct of pious husbands and wives. Its outstanding feature mentioned here is that they help each other in acts of virtue and obedience of Allah.

1184 - وعنه وعن أبي سعيد رضي الله عنهما قالا قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ إذا أيقظ الرجل أهله من الليل فصليا أو صلى ركعتين جميعا كتب في الذاكرين والذاكرات ] رواه أبو داود بإسناد صحيح
1184. Abu Sa`id and Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "When a man awakens his wife during the night and they both perform two Rak`ah Salat together, they are recorded among the men and women who celebrate remembrance of Allah.''
[Abu Dawud].
Commentary: This Hadith points out the excellence of performing Tahajjud prayers with one's wife. Those who do so will be recorded as (the men and the women who remember Allah much, with their hearts and tongues). For such people, as the Verse concludes [Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward (i.e., Jannah)]. (33:35)

1185 - وعن عائشة رضي الله عنها أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : [ إذا نعس أحدكم في الصلاة فليرقد حتى يذهب عنه النوم فإن أحدكم إذا صلى وهو ناعس لعله يذهب يستغفر فيسب نفسه ] متفق عليه
1185. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "When one of you dozes off while performing Salat, he should lie down till his drowsiness has gone away from him. When one of you performs Salat while dozing, he may abuse himself instead of seeking pardon (as a result of drowsiness).''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

1186 - وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ إذا قام أحدكم من الليل فاستعجم القرآن على لسانه فلم يدر ما يقول فليضطجع ] رواه مسلم
1186. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "When anyone of you stands up for Salat at night and finds it difficult to recite the Qur'an accurately and he is unaware of what he is reciting, he should go back to sleep.''
[Muslim].
Commentary: Since peace of mind and concentration are essential for performing Salat, it should be performed when one is fresh and free from tiredness and drowsiness. This is the reason Muslims have been prohibited through these two Ahadith from performing Salat when they are overwhelmed by sleep. In such conditions one cannot make proper expression of one's humility before Allah, which is the essence of Salat. Therefore, in such conditions one should first have some sleep because only then one will get real pleasure from the recitation of the Qur'an, prayer and praise of Allah, and will be in a position to beseech Him earnestly for pardoning one's sins.

213 - باب استحباب قيام رمضان وهو التراويح
Chapter 213
The Excellence of Optional (Tawawih) Prayer during Ramadan

1187 - عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : [ من قام رمضان إيمانا واحتسابا غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه ] متفق عليه
1187. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "He who observes optional prayer (Tarawih prayers) throughout Ramadan, out of sincerity of Faith and in the hope of earning reward will have his past sins pardoned.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

1188 - وعنه رضي الله عنه قال : كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يرغب في قيام رمضان من غير أن يأمرهم فيه بعزيمة فيقول : [ من قام رمضان إيمانا واحتسابا غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه ] رواه مسلم

1188. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to urge (the people) to perform (optional Tarawih) prayer at night during the month of Ramadan. He did not order them or make it obligatory on them. He (PBUH) said, "Whosoever performs (optional Tarawih) prayers at night during the month of Ramadan, with Faith and in the hope of receiving Allah's reward, will have his past sins forgiven.''
[Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadith highlights the following points:
1. Qiyam in the month of Ramadan is a much-stressed act and has great importance from the viewpoint of reward and award.
2. The sins which are pardoned through it are minor sins because major sins are not forgiven unless one makes sincere repentance and compensates those whom he has wronged.
3. That Qiyam during the month of Ramadan was the practice of the Prophet (PBUH). During the course of a Ramadan, he made Qiyam for three nights consecutively, that is, he performed this Nafl Salat in congregation with his Companions. On the fourth night, when his Companions gathered for this purpose he said to them, "I am afraid it will be made obligatory for you.'' So, in spite of their desire to join him in this prayer, he did not lead the Salat that night. How many Rak`ah did he perform in congregation in these three nights is a pertinent question here. According to Ahadith their total comes to eleven; eight Rak`ah and three Witr. Thus the Masnun number of Rak`ah of Qiyam Ramadan is eleven.
4. This Nafl Salat has been interpreted in Ahadith as Qiyam Ramadan. Later on they were named Tarawih. Tarawih is the plural of Tarwihah. Since the Companions of the Prophet (PBUH) and the successors to the Companions used to make a lengthy Qiyam in them and they would take rest after performing every four Rak`ah. This is how these came to be named Tarawih (Rest prayer). (Four Rak`ah are called Tarwihah).
5. Tarawih are in fact Tahajjud prayers. For the sake of convenience and benefit of the maximum number of people, it is performed in the month of Ramadan soon after `Isha' prayer, along with the latter, which is the early time for Tahajjud prayers.
6. That the Tarawih were performed in congregation is established from the conduct of the Prophet (PBUH). He led this Salat on 23rd, 25th and 27th of Ramadan. During his caliphate, `Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) started it again and ordered Ubayy bin K`ab and Tamim Ad-Dari to perform them in congregation. He enjoined them to perform eight Rak`ah Tarawih and three Rak`ah Witr. This practice has been going on ever since.
7. Some people say that performing Tarawih in congregation is a Bid`ah (innovation in religion) because it was introduced in the reign of `Umar (May Allah be pleased with him). But this is not correct because it is established that the Prophet (PBUH) did not continue it out of fear that it will be made obligatory; otherwise he would have carried on with it. When the fear that this practice be made obligatory was over, `Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) gave it the form of a Nafl prayer and revived the mode of performing it collectively, and thus fulfilled the desire of the Prophet (PBUH). In spite of all these facts, it is still permissible for one to perform Tarawih individually in the late hours of the night. Since ordinary people are not capable of performing it individually, the step taken by `Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) is perfectly correct. If this had not been done, the majority of the people will have remained deprived of the blessings and reward of Qiyam-ul-Lail, which would have been a great deprivation indeed.
8. Twenty Rak`ah Tarawih is not confirmed from any authentic Hadith, nor its ascription to `Umar i(May Allah be pleased with him)is proved from any reliable Muttasil (connected) Hadith. A claim has been made in a Munqati` (disconnected) narration that in the days of `Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) people used to perform twenty, thirty-six and forty Rak`ah of Tarawih out of which one can at best infer the justification for more than eight Rak`ah Nafl prayer. Even then the Masnun Tarawih will be eight Rak`ah only, and more or less than that will be Ghair-Masnun.
9. In Tarawih, that is Qiyam Ramadan, lengthy Qiyam is Masnun, but it must be borne in mind that the Qur'an must be recited according to the principles of `Ilm-ut-Tajwid with clear and distinct voice at a slow pace. Many of the Qurra recite so fast that it is hard for one to understand, let alone concentrate on what is being recited. Such recitation is a means of retribution rather than reward. A new system is now in vogue: According to this fashion, the whole Qur'an is finished within a few days and eight to ten parts of it are recited daily in Tarawih. There are hundreds of thousands people in the audience. After listening the Qur'an for a few days, these people console themselves that they have heard the entire Qur'an in Tarawih and are now free to pay full attention to their business to make the best of the `Eid season. They do not care to know whether the Qari is reciting the Qur'an or something else.

214 - باب فضل قيام ليلة القدر وبيان أرجى لياليها
Chapter 214
The Superiority of Lailat-ul-Qadr (the Night of Decree)

قال الله تعالى ( سورة القدر ) : { إنا أنزلناه في ليلة القدر } إلى آخر السورة
وقال تعالى ( الدخان 3 ) : { إنا أنزلناه في ليلة مباركة } الآيات
Allah, the Exalted, says:
"Verily, We have sent it (this Qur'an) down in the Night of Al-Qadr (Decree). And what will make you know what the Night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is? The Night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e., worshipping Allah in that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, i.e., 83 years and 4 months). Therein descend the angels and the Ruh [Jibril (Gabriel)] by Allah's Permission with all Decrees. (All that night), there is peace (and goodness from Allah to His believing slaves) until the appearance of dawn.'' (97:1-5)
"We sent it (this Qur'an) down on a blessed night [(i.e., the Night of Al-Qadr, Surah No:97) in the month of Ramadan, the 9th month of the Islamic calendar]. Verily, We are ever warning [mankind that Our Torment will reach those who disbelieve in Our Oneness of Lordship and in Our Oneness of worship]. Therein (that night) is decreed every matter of ordainments (i.e., the matters of deaths, births, provisions, and calamities for the whole (coming) year as decreed by Allah). As a Command (or this Qur'an or the Decree of every matter) from Us. Verily, We are ever sending (the Messengers). (As) a Mercy from your Rubb, Verily! He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.'' (44:3-6)

1189 - وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : [ من قام ليلة القدر إيمانا واحتسابا غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه ] متفق عليه
1189. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "Whosoever performs Qiyam during Lailat-ul-Qadr (Night of Decree), with Faith and being hopeful of Allah's reward, will have his former sins forgiven.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: Qiyam here means what keeps one awake to one's capacity and for worship and makes one perform Nawafil, impels one to beg pardon for sins from Allah, urges one to praise Him. Specially, if a person performs `Isha prayer and Fajr prayer in congregation, he will hopefully attain all those distinctions which are mentioned in this Hadith.

1190 - وعن ابن عمر رضي الله عنه أن رجالا من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أروا ليلة القدر في المنام في السبع الأواخر فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : [ أرى رؤياكم قد تواطأت في السبع الأواخر فمن كان متحريها فليتحرها في السبع الأواخر ] متفق عليه
1190. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Some of the Companions of the Prophet (PBUH) saw Lailat-ul-Qadr (Night of Decree) in their dreams in the last seven nights of Ramadan, whereupon the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "I see that your dreams all agree upon the last seven nights. Whosoever seeks it, let him seek it in the last seven nights.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: "Tawat'at'' linguistically means to step or walk on, that is, to place foot over the place where one's fellow kept his foot. Here, it is used in the sense of correspondence. In other words, "I see that your dreams all agree upon the last seven nights'' stands to mean "you had similar dreams''. This was done by showing all of them the (spectacle) of Lailat-ul-Qadr. On the strength of these dreams, the Prophet (PBUH) said that Lailat-ul-Qadr should be sought in the last seven nights of Ramadan. The wisdom of keeping it secret is to keep people awake to engage in worship for a larger number of nights in this auspicious month.

1191 - وعن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت : كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يجاور في العشر الأواخر من رمضان ويقول : [ تحروا ليلة القدر في العشر الأواخر من رمضان ] متفق عليه
1191. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to seclude himself (in the mosque) during the last ten nights of Ramadan. He would say, "Search for Lailat-ul-Qadr (Night of Decree) in the last ten nights of Ramadan.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

1192 - وعنها رضي الله عنها أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : [ تحروا ليلة القدر في الوتر من العشر الأواخر من رمضان ] رواه البخاري
1192. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to observe I`tikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan and say, "Seek Lailat-ul-Qadr (Night of Decree) in the odd nights out of the last ten nights of Ramadan.''
[Al-Bukhari].
Commentary: We learn from this Hadith that Lailat-ul-Qadr occurs in any of the five odd nights - 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th and 29th - of the last ten nights of Ramadan. Its exact date has not been revealed for the reason that people keep themselves awake for prayer for a larger number of nights. Had its date been fixed, people would have kept awake for prayer only on that night. There is a general belief among the scholars that it is fixed, on the 27th night of Ramadan. But this is not correct. Ahadith do not confirm this view.

1193 - وعنها رضي الله عنها قالت : كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إذا دخل العشر الأواخر من رمضان أحيا الليل وأيقظ أهله وجد وشد المئزر . متفق عليه
1193. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: When the last ten nights (of Ramadan) would begin, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) would keep awake at night (for prayer and devotion), awaken his family and prepare himself to be more diligent in worship.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

1194 - وعنها رضي الله عنها قالت : كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يجتهد في رمضان ما لا يجتهد في غيره وفي العشر الأواخر منه ما لا يجتهد في غيره . رواه مسلم
1194. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to strive more in worship during Ramadan than he strove in any other time of the year; and he would devote himself more (in the worship of Allah) in the last ten nights of Ramadan than he strove in earlier part of the month.
[Muslim].
Commentary: We learn from this Hadith that:
1. One should concentrate more on prayers and worship on the last ten nights of Ramadan than the first twenty nights, in the same way as one should do more worship in Ramadan than in the other months.
2. One should keep oneself awake for prayer, worship and glorification of Allah in the last ten nights of Ramadan so that one can attain the blessings of Lailat-ul-Qadr.
3. One should also persuade his family members to keep themselves awake for prayer and worship in the last ten odd nights of Ramadan so that they can also make efforts to please Allah.
4. I`tikaf (seclusion in the mosque for prayers) in the last ten days of Ramadan is also a meritorious act for its being a practice of the Prophet (PBUH).

1195 - وعنها رضي الله عنها قالت قلت : يا رسول الله أرأيت إن علمت أي ليلة ليلة القدر ما أقول فيها ؟ قال : [ قولي : اللهم إنك عفو تحب العفو فاعف عني ] رواه الترمذي وقال حديث حسن صحيح
1195. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: I asked: "O Messenger of Allah! If I realize Lailat-ul-Qadr (Night of Decree), what should I supplicate in it?'' He (PBUH) replied, "You should supplicate: Allahumma innaka `afuwwun, tuhibbul-`afwa, fa`fu `anni (O Allah, You are Most Forgiving, and You love forgiveness; so forgive me).''
[At-Tirmidhi].
Commentary: Although no specific sign of Lailat-ul-Qadr has been mentioned in the Ahadith, some eminent scholars have stated, on the basis of their own experiences and observation, that since angels descend on this night, one feels a peculiar tranquillity and peace of mind and one is overwhelmed with a unique tenderness of heart. The night is neither very hot nor very cold but a temperate one. Similarly, the sun that rises on the next day is also not very hot etc. etc. Allah knows the truth of the matter despite all that has been said in this regard. In any case, on this auspicious night every Muslim should earnestly pray to Allah for the forgiveness of his sins with reference to His Attribute of Forgiveness.
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